Chemical applications for spectroscopy are innumerable and increasing every day. Chemical reactions are dynamic processes which present unique challenges ranging from temperature fluctuations to corrosive and caustic attributes which require robust analytical techniques and tools. Monitoring of chemical reactions in the food/beverage, petroleum, semiconductor and chemical industry itself provides a valuable tool for quality control. Non-invasive and in-situ spectroscopy analysis facilitated by Avantes instruments and accessories provides for real-time, high-speed measurements of chemical processes. Spectroscopy can be used to measure concentrations, process endpoints and contamination at concentrations as low parts per billion (ppb). The study of chemical kinetics is used to characterize processes and improve our understanding of how these factors and others change the outcome of a chemical reaction.
Chemical concentrations can be determined using a variety of techniques derived from Beer-Lambert law analysis. Liquid and gas phase samples can be analyzed over the range from 200-2500 nm and concentrations may be derived using single and multivariate models. Avantes offers a variety of sample interfaces to facilitate laboratory cuvette measurements as well as inline measurements using flow cells and transmission probes. Complex chemical matrices such as volatile organics and carbohydrates may require sophisticated multivariate modeling techniques such as PSA, PLS I & II.
One of the fastest growing techniques for monitoring chemical reactions is Raman Spectroscopy. A vibrational molecular technique which utilizes an excitation laser, Raman spectroscopy is ideal for material identification, reaction monitoring, remote sensing, and any other applicable measurements. Raman provides a molecular fingerprint for chemical species and allows for the monitoring of changes in molecular bond structures (e.g. state changes and stresses & strains). Avantes high sensitivity Sensline spectrometers are ideally suited for Raman spectroscopy.
Fluorescence spectroscopy is another molecular technique which may be used to investigate the behaviors of chemical compounds. This technique is a type of photoluminescence where light energy elevates an electron in a sample to an excited state. This excited state then has a rapid thermal energy loss to its environment due to its vibration and then it emits a photon from its lowest lying singlet excited state. It is a useful technique in many biological (chlorophyll and carotenoid), biochemical (fluorescence diagnosis of malignancies) and environmental applications. Avantes offers a range of high sensitivity spectrometers including our unique AvaSpec-HS2048xL-EVO high numerical aperture spectrometer.
Another analytical technique, Spectroelectrochemistry involves the combination of electrochemistry with spectroscopy as electrical potential is applied to chemical samples while simultaneously being measured spectroscopically. Spectroscopic information about electrogenerated species can be obtained, including electronic absorption, vibrational modes and frequencies, light emission and scattering, magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. Avantes instruments perform exceptionally well in this application due to the sophisticated electronics controls facilitated by our AS-5216 and AS-5216 electronics and accompany controlling software.